After many years of negotiations and the hard work of many visionary leaders, the historic Umbrella Final Agreement (UFA) was signed in 1993. It provided the template for negotiating individual land claim agreements (called „Final Agreements“) with any Yukon First Nation. Land rights agreements take place in areas of Canada where Aboriginal land rights have not been addressed by previous treaties or other legal means. In the Yukon, a number of modern contracts of the future, also known as final agreements, were negotiated to settle these land claims. Negotiations resumed in the late 1980s and culminated in the Umbrella Final Agreement (UFA) in 1990. The UFA is used as a framework or model for individual agreements with each of the fourteen federally recognized Yukon First Nations. It was signed in 1993 and the first four First Nations ratified their Focal Claims Agreements in 1995. To date (January 2016), eleven of the fourteen First Nations have signed and ratified an agreement. Currently, La Rivière Blanche First Nation, Liard First Nation and Ross River Dena Council are not negotiating. You remain indian bands after the Indian Federal Act. [2] Global land agreements – or modern treaties – are agreements that exchange indefinite aboriginal rights for defined contractual rights and the right to housing. Unlike most other Canadian land claims, which apply only to status Indians, Yukon First Nations insisted that the agreements include all those they considered part of their nation, whether or not they were recognized as Status Indians under federal government rules. In 1973, the Yukon Indian Brotherhood and the Yukon Association of Non-Status Indians founded the Council for Yukon Indians (CYI) to negotiate a focal claims agreement.

The two organizations and the Council formally merged in 1980 as the Council for Yukon Indians. In 1995, CYI was renamed the Council of Yukon First Nations. Before Yukon First Nations regained their autonomy, the federal government regulated how to use their country. Prior to the agreement, Yukon First Nations claimed the yukon country and resources as all in their possession. [3] This was based on the traditional occupation and use of this country. But all Yukon affairs were controlled by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC). [3] INAC was responsible for implementing programs in the areas of law, land reserves, health, social services and housing. Yukon First Nation Bands implemented these programs but did not have the authority to change them. [3] While the Umbrella Final Agreement provides a framework within which each of the fourteen Yukon First Nations will enter into a final claims settlement agreement, all provisions of the UFA are part of any First Nation Final Agreement (FNFA).

The final agreements contain the entire text of Umbrella`s final agreement, with the addition of specific provisions applicable to each First Nation. Any land rights agreement is also accompanied by a self-management agreement that gives First Nations the right to legislate in a number of areas. These agreements give First Nations the power to control and direct their own affairs and outline a First Nation`s ability to assume responsibility for providing programs or services to its citizens. [8] The first step in Yukon was the negotiation and signing of a comprehensive framework called the Umbrella Final Agreement (UFA). This framework was signed in 1993 by the governments of Canada and Yukon, as well as the Council for Yukon Indians (now the Council of Yukon First Nations). The UFA was then used as the basis for final agreements signed with individual First Nations. The current process began in 1973 with the publication of Together Today For our Children Tomorrow by Chief Elijah Smith….

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